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Java Best Practices That Every Java Developer Should Know in 2023

Java programming language has been one of the most dominant programming languages. In today’s time when many strong programming languages had become a way long dead, Java has still kept itself alive and relevant. Simultaneously, it is speedily growing too.

Java has some or the other way remained in the top few numbers of the list of top programming languages across the world. With its popularity and other features like scalability, WORA (Write Once Run Anywhere), etc., modern developers rely on Java for certain types of project development.

Java language is easy to learn for developers with basic programming knowledge. However, if they are not implementing Java best practices, software development can’t be streamlined. In this article, we will learn more about which Java best practices are necessary to implement by developers for easy and quick Java development.

Top Java Best Practices that Every Java developer should implement

When Java programmers want to write project code that is readable, clean, and error-free, they can implement the following Java development principles:

Using Underscores whenever necessary in Numeric literal

This best practice was established in Java 7. It helps in writing lengthy numerics in a proper and readable way. Hence, instead of writing in a common way like:

int no = 20348953;

You can write the above statement like this:

int no = 20_348_953;

Making use of this practice can make your code well-structured, unique, and readable.

Use proper naming conventions

First of all, before beginning to write code, define a proper naming convention. You have to pre-decide proper conventions for interfaces, classes, variables, methods, etc.

In case any other developer is working with you, or instead of you on the same project, it will be easy for them to understand which function is for what. Similar names can create uniformity in your Java development.

Having a meaningful naming convention is essential for interfaces or classes that are known by their names.

Developers shouldn’t assign random names to satisfy the compiler. Developers use meaningful names so that it’s clear and can be understood by you, your team members, QA engineers, and also the staff.

Never leave any Catch Block empty

Not keeping the catch block empty is one of the best practices that is implemented by Java developers elite. They can write proper and understandable messages inside the catch block while handling exceptions.

Newbie developers often make a mistake by not writing anything inside the catch block after thinking that it is only them who are working on this project. But when some other developer of their team starts working together, they will not understand what this catch block is made for. It also makes debugging time-consuming and harder.

So, instead of keeping catch blocks empty, put a meaningful message inside it to make it understandable to other developers as well.

Avoid repeated initializations

This practice is a common best technique that Java developers implement. It is not a good idea to initialize member variables with values such as 0, null, and false.

These values are the default initialization values of each member Java variable. Hence, as per the best practice of Java, developers should be aware of the default values of the Java variable and avoid redundant initializations. Hence, it will help with easy and quick development.

Handling the Null Pointer Exceptions

Null Pointer Exceptions are common to handle in Java. This exception can occur as a result of calling a method of ‘Null Object Reference’. For example, here is a code:

int numOfEmployees = company.listEmployees().count;

This code is error-free, but if the object ‘company’ or method ‘listEmployees()’ is Null, the code will give a null pointer exception. These exceptions are important but for its easy handling, there are certain Java best practices to implement. Firstly, it is essential to check Null results before executing the method, so that one can eliminate them or update the code for handling them well.

Here’s a corrected code version:

private int getListOfEmployees (File[] files) {

if (files == null)

throw new NullPointerException (“List can’t be null”);


This code will help you handle the situation of a null pointer exception.


These names are the cryptic acronyms that stand for the below given three valuable best practices for Java software development:

Keep It Simple, Stupid (KISS)

Using ambiguous and complicated software architecture for the sake of making innovative projects is a common mistake of Java developers. Keep your code and project as simple as possible, and in a manner that fulfills the business requirements.

You Ain’t going to need it (YAGNI)

The code volume and its functionality should be spelled solely on the basis of different strategic plans and not on a single-spot decision.

Do not repeat yourself (DRY)

Developers should avoid repeating themselves by writing the same code for the same type of functions. It will help them save more time and the code becomes readable and easy to understand.

Avoid Memory Leaks

In Java languages, the developers do not have proper control of memory management as Java language automatically manages the memory. Still, there is some important performance degradation.

One should always release DB connections after querying is complete. Use it finally for the block as often releasing instances which are stored in static tables after implementing certain Java best practices for easy coding for preventing memory leakage.

Quick use of Strings

Handling Strings can be easy in Java programming, but it must be used properly to stop access to memory usage. For example, if there are 2 Strings and they are concatenated in one loop, a new String object will be made on every iteration. If the loop numbers are significant, it can create a lot of memory wastage and will also increase the time of performance as well.

In another case, where the String Object is instantiated, there’s a Java practice to avoid using instantiation constructors and make the process direct without any barriers. It is a faster way to use a constructor.

Use of Single quotes and double quotes

We know that double quotes are for representing Strings and single quotes are used for representing characters. In some specific cases, it can go wrong. When it’s required to concatenate the characters and make a string, Java uses double quotes for characters that require concatenation.

The main cause behind it is if the double quotes are used, the characters are treated as simple strings, and there’s no issue created. However, if one uses single quotes, the integer values of characters will be calculated because of the process known as widening primitive conversion.

public class classA {

public static void main(String args[]) {

         System.out.print(“A” + “B”);

System.out.print(‘C’ + ‘D’);



One would expect the output to be ABCD, but it is not true. The output on the screen will be AB135 as AB is written fine but C and D have single quotes. Hence, their ASCII values are added together because of the + operator. Ultimately, the result on the screen will be AB135.

Use StringBuffer or StringBuilder for concatenating the String

One can use the + operator for joining different Strings together. It is a common best practice in different programming languages like Java and others.

This practice is commonly used and is not wrong, but when you need to concat the numerous strings, the “+” operator is inefficient because the Java compiler makes different intermediate string objs prior to making the final string.

In such a case, using the StringBuffer or StringBuilder can be one of the Java best practices. These in-built functions update the string without making intermediate String objects which saves unnecessary memory usage and processing time.

For example,

String sql = “Insert Into Users (name, age)”;

sql += ” values (‘” + user.getName();

sql += “‘, ‘” + user.getage();

sql += “‘)”;

The code mentioned above could be written like this:

StringBuilder sqlSb = new StringBuilder(“Insert Into Users (name, age)”);

sqlSb.append(” values (‘”).append(user.getName());

sqlSb.append(“‘, ‘”).append(user.getage());


String sqlSb = sqlSb.toString();

Concluding Words

At last, Java developers must remain updated with the modern best practices for maximizing their efficiency and making high-quality code. The ever-evolving landscape of technology needs a continuous learning mindset, and by adhering to these Java best practices, developers can ensure their code is robust, scalable, and maintainable.

From adopting modularization and reactive programming to embracing cloud-native development and security practices, the Java developer community has a wealth of resources and tools at their disposal. By following these best practices, Java developers can navigate the complexities of modern software development and position themselves for success in the rapidly evolving world of technology.


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